My experience in Greenland

Hello there! I’m the lowly undergrad who was strong-armed into writing about my experience travelling with the group to Greenland this summer.  It was my first time doing anything like this and really felt like I had stepped into a different world.   The conditions were unlike anything I have ever experienced.  The combination of the altitude, 24-hour daylight and the cold meant that I basically didn’t sleep for the first few days on the ice.  Even though I was taking altitude medication, I was sick for the first two days up there. Once I got used to the conditions (and found out where the meds were kept), I actually got some sleep and quickly felt better.

I was paired with Don the Driller and put on the nighttime drilling shift.  After a few days of training, Don and I began drilling the cores needed for our samples.  We would usually work for a few hours at 6pm (pretty cold) and then a few more hours starting at 3am (VERY cold).

Photo by Matt Pacicco

This was how I had to dress to work the much colder “night” shift.  While Don and I were outside drilling in the cold the rest of the team was either resting comfortably in their beds or watching ice melt in a heated building.  After spending hours drilling outside during the coldest part of the day we would go in to warm up, primarily to complain to our fellow teammates about the cold.

Photo by Matt Pacicco

Most of the cores that we drilled weren’t at the depth that we needed, so they were essentially useless.  These cores got tossed to the sides of the drill and ended up in large piles like the one shown above.  Snow would slowly drift over and hide them causing the drillers (well mostly just me) to constantly trip over them.

Photo by Matt Pacicco

Here’s a look at the science side of our camp at the start of a 3am shift.  The two largest buildings (both heated) housed our team’s melter system and sublimation system.  The drill rig (pictured below) is off in no-man’s-land to the left of this picture.

Photo by Matt Pacicco

In this picture the main part of the drill is down the hole.  There were two people working the drill during each shift.  One person would man the control and actually do the drilling part while the other would assist with taking the drill apart when it surfaced to get the core out. As you can see we are clearly working outside in the cold and not inside one of the nice heated buildings shown in the previous picture.  We drilled a total of 5 holes to depths ranging from 55 meters to 135 meters.  The drill we were using would drill anywhere from 4 to 6 meters in an hour, so drilling those holes took a couple weeks.  By the time the samples were drilled, melted and collected, it was time to pack up the camp and head home.

The experience was amazing for me.  I was born in New York City and lived my whole life in the city and its suburbs, so going to such a remote place was an incredible opportunity to try something completely different.  I remember talking to my grandmother a few days before I was going to leave, and she was asking me if “city boys survive up there.” Well guess what grandma; I did survive.  And I really enjoyed the experience.  I was fortunate to be surrounded by a great group of people who (even though they gave me a hard time) were always there to help.  I want to really thank the Petrenko group for giving me this opportunity and thank the rest of the team (Alden, Dean, Don, Jayred, Jochen, Ross and Xavier) for making the expedition so much fun to be a part of.

Matt

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Ready, Set, Sublimate

Hello folks, apologies for being slow to update during the season.  Now that I’m back home and basking in the summer heat, I wanted to take a minute to go over one of the critical objectives that we embarked upon this past season – the Field Sublimation device!

Photo by Ben Hmiel

The system as it was assembled in the field

First, allow me to explain the rationale behind the system.  The overall goal of the project at summit is to characterize the production and retention of cosmogenic in-situ 14C through the firn column.  To put that more simply, we’re trying to find out how much 14C is produced by nuclear reactions from cosmic rays in the upper part of the ice sheet, as well as how much actually comes to be trapped in the air bubbles as opposed to just diffusing out of the firn matrix.  We’ve already discussed the large-volume Ice melting system in another blog post, but one big limitation to highlight of that system is that it can only characterize the 14CO and 14CH4 content in the Ice – not 14CO2.  This is because melting of ice can lead to extra CO2 production from carbonate dust present in the ice (especially significant in Greenland – less so in Antarctica). So with only the Melter, we’re left with an incomplete picture of 14C production as 14CO2 is a major contribution of the overall 14C content.  By sublimating the, ice we skip the liquid phase during the extraction and prevent the aqueous carbonate equilibrium reactions from producing extra CO2.  We’re able to do this by keeping the Ice below the ‘Triple-Point’ on the water phase diagram, enabling the conversion directly from Ice -> vapor just by keeping the Ice cold and under vacuum.

Other laboratories have attempted to measure 14CO2 by dry extraction methods, however since the cosmogenic 14C is produced within the ice matrix itself (not just the air bubbles), results suggest that dry extraction methods fail to liberate all of the in-situ CO2 leading to inconsistent results.

Great, so we need to sublimate the Ice if we want to extract 14CO2.  Then why on earth would we bring our system to the field – isn’t it easier to build a complicated extraction system in a laboratory with stable temperatures and electricity not provided by generators?

Well, the reason for that is two-fold.  First, we want to sample the firn column to determine the amount of in-situ 14C that is retained through to bubble close off.  Firn samples are known to trap bubbles over time following drilling and shipment back home.  This would lead to atmospheric air being trapped (which is high in 14CO2) and mistakenly part of our sample.  Thus for the firn samples we plan to collect – the only option is to extract the 14CO2 in the field immediately after drilling.  Additionally, once an Ice sample is drilled, it is subjected to intense 14C production at the surface of the ice sheet at a high altitude, high-latitude location like Summit (and even more at higher altitude during the airplane shipment back home).  Thus, there would be significant post-coring production of 14CO2 that would need to be accounted for and subtracted out.  That being said – we still did collect some Ice samples in the field for the purpose of testing this effect.  I plan on running them in Rochester during the months to come in order to see how my field results compare; however to get the best data, we aimed to sublimate each sample with hours or a few days of being drilled.

OK, so with the justification and science explained, let’s get into what a typical sampling day for me would entail in the field.  Just after waking up, I would sleepily crawl out of my tent to head into Plan Q to check on the system from the overnight evacuation (while also hoping that my generator did not run out of fuel overnight).  After performing a few checks, I head to breakfast while setting up a test to test for any leaks of ambient air that could contaminate my sample. Technically there is always a leak of ambient air in any vacuum line, however it is a matter of whether or not the amount is significant in terms of the analytes being measured.  During the course of the sublimation, I need to make sure that the leak rate into the vessel and surrounding lines was less than ~1×10-5 sccm (standard cc’s/min) to avoid trapping any significant amount of extraneous CO2.  To think of it another way, that equates to a cube of air 6mm on each side (roughly the size of a corn kernel) entering the vessel every hour – that’s not very much air!

Photo by Ben Hmiel

Here is the vessel empty without insulation and ethanol in the moat. Beneath the plate lies another chamber where the Ice is loaded

Once the system passed all the morning tests, I was ready to load my sample for the day into our large glass sublimation vessel above.  The design of this system allows for an Ice sample to be loaded onto a chilled pedestal from below.  There is then an array of IR lamps that irradiate the sample while it is under vacuum.  Then above the Ice sample, we designed a built-in ‘moat’ of Ethanol chilled with a probe chiller.  The moat serves to re-condense the bulk of the water vapor right away, allowing the gases and 14C to travel through the rest of the vacuum line and minimizing the amount of water vapor co-transferred.  This glass vessel is rather cumbersome and difficult to work around, but amazingly it worked well for the season and only suffered one breakage (luckily we had a spare made).  Thanks to Allen Scientific Glass for making this rather complicated device for us.

Photo by Ben Hmiel

Here is the system in operation with ethanol in the moat cooling the inner chamber.

Loading the Ice into the vessel is a delicate process that takes two people to perform.  By the time I was well rehearsed in the procedure, I was able to minimize the time that the vessel was open (and subjected to ambient CO2) down to ~5 minutes.  Once the Ice was in the vessel and the flange assembled, we begin by evacuating the ambient air out of the vessel.  This is a key part of the procedure that takes ~45 minutes allowing for a few flushes of CO2-free air to make absolutely sure that any ambient CO2 (including that which I breathe into the poorly ventilated building) is not collected during the extraction.  We also begin to sublimate a small amount of Ice off of the surface to ‘pre-clean’ it from any CO2 that may have adsorbed onto it.  CO2 is known to be a very “sticky” gas, meaning it readily adsorbs onto surfaces – making it a pain-in-the-neck for all scientists trying to measure it!

Photo by Xavier Fain

View from below with the lamps irradiating the ice block in the lower chamber

Following the evacuation it’s time to sublimate the Ice!  I set the lamps to ~25% power and monitor them over the course of the day.  The amount of time it takes to sublimate a sample depends on the CO2 concentration, sample mass and geometry.  In general for fully closed Ice, I can sublimate a 1.5Kg sample for ~7 hrs to extract ~20μg of CO2 that will be sent to ANSTO for graphitization and measurement by AMS.  The lamp voltage is adjusted from a pair of Rheostats mounted on the device.  Generator power is fairly inconsistent and unstable, so I would have to monitor and adjust the power based on my readings of the pressure inside of the vessel.  Too little lamp power and I’m not sublimating enough Ice, too much and the vapor pressure increases to an extent that I may end up pushing the system above the triple point and melting it slightly – neither are desirable scenarios.

The rest of the system is rather simple in comparison to the vessel.  Downstream of the vessel sits a pair of glass traps that are chilled to -90 in an Ethanol bath to condense any excess water vapor that is not trapped by the moat in the main vessel.  It is imperative to remove as much water as possible beyond this point, since water vapor behaves similarly to CO2 in our vacuum system and it is possible to mistakenly identify water as CO2 during a pressure reading in the manometer.

Photo by Ben Hmiel

Molecular sieve trap held under liquid nitrogen

Following the water trap is a small loop trap held under liquid nitrogen to trap the CO2 during the extraction.  At liquid nitrogen temperature (-196C), CO2 will freeze under vacuum while allowing the bulk Air (mostly N2 and O2, some noble gases as well) to pass through unaffected.  Other trace species (Eg. N2O) will also freeze at this temperature, however their concentration is generally too small to be significant.  Following the CO2 loop trap is one final glass trap, this time containing ~3g of molecular sieves that are also held under liquid nitrogen during the extraction process.  When cold, the molecular sieves will adsorb the majority of gases they are exposed to, save those with small molecular diameters (Eg. Ne, He).   This allows us to trap the remaining air that is released from the Ice during the extraction process.  This is needed in order for us to measure the concentration of CO2 we collect.  Additionally, the mole Sieves serve as a ‘pump’ – creating an area of low pressure that drives diffusion of the gases out of the sublimation vessel downstream towards the CO2 trap.      While it is not that strong of a ‘pump’ – over the ~7 hour extraction time it is certainly sufficient to get the majority of gases out of the vessel.

Photo by Ben Hmiel

Manometers for measuring CO2 and air content

The only part of the line left to explain are a series of manometers for measuring the pressure of the bulk Air collected on the sieves as well as the pure CO2 that is distilled from the liquid nitrogen trap.  Once all the measurements are made, the CO2 is manipulated into one side of the line where I flameseal it into a sealed glass ampoule.  This part is a bit nerve-wracking, however with plenty of practice it becomes fairly routine.  I’m proud to say that I have never botched a flameseal on a real sample (either here or on the 14CH4 extraction line back home) – though that says nothing about how many failed while I was practicing.  The glass vials will eventually be shipped halfway around the world to Australia to be measured for 14C on the AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometer).

I hope that gives everyone an informative view of what I did up in Greenland this past season.  Once we get some results from this system I’ll be sure to share it on the blog!

-Ben

Work in Progress!

 

Our worksite late at night

We have been at our remote camp (“C-14 camp”) for slightly over a week now , and our season is progressing well. The weather has been kind to us, with many cold nights around -35˚C, but no high winds. The Summit crew have done a fantastic job of setting up the site for us, and the camp and worksite were ready for us to move in.

This is the last field season of our Greenland Summit project. The overall goal of the project is to understand how cosmic rays interact with ice and firn (the compacted snow layer at the top of an ice sheet) to produce carbon-14. This season we are also collecting an ice core for analyses of carbon monoxide concentration and stable isotopes, to improve our understanding of how the atmosphere before the Industrial Revolution compares to that of today.

With an experienced put-in team (Mike, Don, Dean, Phil, Ben, Jochen and myself) and overall good weather, set up proceeded quickly. Phil and I worked on the large ice melter system and associated instruments.

Inside the “Flux” insulated building which serves as our main lab

Inside the “Flux” insulated building which serves as our main lab

The large ice melter full of water and tucked in for the night!

The large ice melter full of water and tucked in for the night!

With help from Ben and Jochen on the first day, we were able to assemble the entire system and successfully pass the crucial vacuum leak test in just 3 days. We have now completed the first melt-extraction, where we took firn cores from between 30 and 40 m depth and melted them under vacuum to extract any trapped carbon-14 that the cosmic rays have produced. We have also started on a series of control experiments (“blank tests”) which will tell us how much carbon-14 is added to the samples from our apparatus.

A brand-new analytical system, “the sublimator” is making its first appearance in the field this season.

The new ice sublimation system, assembled at our camp

The new ice sublimation system, assembled at our camp

This system can sublimate ice to extract carbon dioxide for analyses of carbon-14 – something that the large melter is not capable of. Ben has worked very hard to build and test this system in the months leading up to our field campaign. Ben and Jochen have assembled the sublimator and have successfully completed an initial round of tests.

Ben and Jochen going over the plan of action for the sublimator

Ben and Jochen going over the plan of action for the sublimator

Our fearless and incredibly competent camp manager, Dean, has done a great job of running camp and keeping us well-fed for the hard work and cold weather.

Four out of seven team members (Mike, Don, Phil, Dean) are now at our second sampling location, known as PLACE camp, 36 km away from C-14 camp. PLACE camp is the chosen location of our carbon monoxide ice core. Our ice drillers Mike and Don have by now assembled our drill (the BID, which stands for Blue Ice Drill), drilled 40 m of core at C-14 camp, disassembled the drill completely, moved it to PLACE camp, re-assembled it, and drilled over 40 more meters of core.

The Tucker departs C-14 camp for PLACE camp, loaded with ice core boxes, the Blue Ice Drill and camp supplies.

The Tucker departs C-14 camp for PLACE camp, loaded with ice core boxes, the Blue Ice Drill and camp supplies.

To conclude, work has been progressing well, the team is in high spirits and we look forward to the arrival of the rest of our team at Summit

Vas

Another Season at Summit!

Well, after some days travel – we are finally back at Summit again for our third and final season in this project. Let me give a brief summary of the journey that has happened over the past few days.

On Friday, 5.15 – we all arrived at the Scotia Air National Guard (ANG) base as chipper as we could be for 5 in the morning. After a quick tour around the cargo to make sure all of it was accounted for, we watched our safety video on the LC130’s and began our waiting game. As has come to be expected by now, we were eventually notified that mechanical delays would be pushing back our departure from 8am to ~10am. Luckily, that was the only delay we experienced as the guard eventually shuttled us out to the airfield and allowed to board the plane.

As is usual, we made a pit stop halfway on our way to greenland at ‘Goose Bay’ Newfoundland to refuel. Partly because the fuel is cheaper there, but also because we needed it since there were over 20,000lbs of cargo palletized in the back of the plane. Most importantly, however, we all got an ice cream bar while waiting in goose bay as a treat to enjoy while we waited.

As we were getting seated back on the plane, we were quickly notified that we needed to deboard and head back into the waiting area. Apparently one of the guardsman miscalculated how much fuel to add to the plane by 4000lbs. Oops – that seems like quite a bit to be off by. Glad it was caught by one other member of the flight crew!

We arrived in Kanger ~7pm local time with dinner waiting for us. In our briefing from the folks in the ‘Kangerlussuaq International Science Support’ (KISS) building, the science hostel where we stay in Kanger, we were told the bevy of changes that had happened since last year. I was happy to learn that ‘The Polar Bear’ – the not-so-great combination Thai-Pizza place was closed down this year. Instead, the King Kong Bar was serving food instead. This was a nice change of tune to hear, although upon further inspection it seemed that the family that owned the Polar Bear had just moved his operation inside of the bar – with essentially the same menu 😦 One nice thing about our visit to kanger was that KISS was very empty, meaning that each of us had our own room!

Photo by Ben Hmiel

A look at our cargo being palletized for the flight to Summit

The following day was spent tracking and organizing our cargo, making sure that all of it arrived and was en route to summit. This year, our combined Scince & Drill cargo came in ~11,000 lbs. This doesn’t even include the camp gear, food and Fuel that we will need to operate for the 6 weeks that our team is up here (probably on the order of another 12-15,000lbs). We spent an hour and a half in the CPS warehouse, packing foam into 90 Ice core boxes that will be drilled at PLACE camp as part of the core we will be collecting. (More on the Science in another Blog Post)

Following Lunch, we had a meeting to discuss the science and logistics involved with the project. After that, we were set to just get our rest and prepare for an early flight to summit the following day. Infact, 8am the following day came rather early, as we all met in the kitchen dressed in our ‘Emergency Cold Weather Gear’ (ECW) and waited for the ANG to call us to get on the plane. 830 came by and we received word that there were Mechanical delays. By 10, the word was that weather was good at Summit but the winds were too high in kanger to be able to return – The plane will only stop at Summit to Unload/Pickup People & Cargo, flying back to Kanger as it can’t reliably startup in the cold.

By 1030, the weather didn’t seem like it was going to improve so we were given our room keys back and told that it was unlikely we would fly, so we were fine to go back to sleep if we wanted. Delays like this are just part of polar travel I’ve become used to over the past few years. Having an extra day to just rest and relax was very nice, as I’ve been fairly overwhelmed with Labwork & logistics that I haven’t had much a chance to just sit on my hands and do nothing. Felt kinda good – aside from the fact that the food in Kanger stunk (though I need to give credit to a friend Robert, owner of the Phonecians Lebanese restaurant in Albany who sent Phil & I up with tons of Pita, Hommus, Mujadara, Falafel and a bunch more). Only downside was that it didn’t last for every meal in Kanger.

Well, after a day’s rest, we reconvened in the morning to await the status of our flight again. ~30mins after the scheduled departure, we reluctantly heard that the story was the same as yesterday – poor conditions in Kanger and not-so-great conditions at Summit. We were told that in the event that we took off and couldn’t land at summit, the backup landing point would be Akureyri, Iceland. Now, I’m not one to turn down a free trip to Iceland – although I would much prefer if it didn’t come at the expense of my third and final field season for this project. In fact, almost everybody in the room sounded a bit pleased to hear that we may actually end up in Iceland – rather than Greenland.

After another our of waiting, I had nearly fallen asleep on the couch and everyone else was getting a bit antsy, however we were surprised to learn that conditions had improved enough for the ANG to clear the flight and take us on up to summit. Wooo, we’re going to Iceland the room cheered and Jeered. So we grabbed our things and hopped on the plane.

Photo by Ben Hmiel

Seeing the guard members lacking confidence didn’t bode well for mine

The flight to Summit is generally a bit under two hours in a C130. I kept note on my watch what time it was, and noticed that as we approached the two hour mark we hadn’t started to make our descent yet. Eventually, I felt that the plane was doing circles in the sky. Everyone had a bit of nervous look and wondered what was going on. Eventually, the loadmaster came to us and said that the visibility at summit was too low to land, so they planned to circle the area at altitude for a bit and home things improved. Greaaaaaaaaat. I phased in and out of sleep due to the heat as I was wearing most of my cold weather gear, but at least an hour went by before we got the signal from the load master that we were descending. Awesome! Before I knew it, we were getting off the plane at the familiar sight of the big house and the bitter cold winds I’ve been all too familiar with.

Photo by Ben Hmiel

The majestic big house of Summit station is a great sight right from getting off the C130

Summit camp seemed much more buried in snow that I remember from prior seasons. Turns out the reason for this is that the crew that was supposed to come up here was delayed for two weeks in kanger, so they are behind on much of their operations. In addition, their D6 tractor is down pending repair parts that came up on the same flight as us. Hopefully they can catch up and get their tasking done at the same time as helping us get our cargo together and out to camp. Speaking of which, I’ve got plenty to do with respect to cagro and trainings (not to mention resting to acclimatize to the 10,500ft altitude) that I must end this entry here. Things are progressing well, hopefully they stay that way. At least the weather is cooperating for now!

Photo by Ben Hmiel

Having a team meeting for discussing what needs to get done in order to move out to our satellite camp

-Ben

Note on the successful completion of Taylor Glacier field season 2014/2015: Amundsen, Bill Wilson, and Shackleton would be proud.

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Edward A. Wilson’s (Scott’s Chief Scientific Staff) illustration of the Royal Society range. Taylor Glacier located is slightly to the right off this picture, between the Kukri Hills (cannot be seen from Hut Point) and the Asgard ranges

Hi all. Apologies for the late updates. I had two blog posts ready (one after Christmas & New Year and one while we’re in MCM) but never got the chance to really post it due to various reasons. There’s another blogpost right below this post about our Christmas in the field, New Year, camp pull out and Icestock music festival in MCM, so please read that one too. Anyway, the purpose of this particular post is to celebrate our successful completion of Taylor Glacier field season. I think the I-159 Taylor Glacier 2014/2015 field team managed to ran a logistically smooth and successful Antarctic field campaign in the manner that would make Amundsen proud, completed so much scientific sampling and on field measurements that would make Edward A. Wilson proud, and displayed so much human endurance and hard work that would make Shackleton proud. Well, the Shackleton comment might be a bit hyperbolic – our field condition wasn’t as dire as the Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition and we weren’t eating pemmicans and frozen solid butter, but the first two remarks I honestly think weren’t hyperbolic at all – especially the Wilson one.

With a team of only 13 people (10 people during the first half of the season, and 8 people during the second half of the season) we drilled about 800m – 80,000 lbs worth of Taylor Glacier ice with the IDDO Blue Ice Drill and some hundred meter or so with the Sidewinder drill. The age of the ice that we drilled ranges from 8,200 years to 130,000 years old. From those ice we melted roughly 20,000 lbs worth of ice with the big ice melter for the 14CH4 measurements on site and shipped about 4,000 lbs worth of ice (both from BID, sidewinder drill, and chainsaw samples) back to the US for further analysis. The ice that we shipped back to the US will be analyzed by six different institutions: University of Rochester, Oregon State University, Scripps Institute of Oceanography at UC San Diego, Desert Reseach Institute – Nevada, Harvard University and Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory at Columbia University. To quote Daniel Baggenstos – one of the pioneer of the Taylor Glacier horizontal ice coring work and a former team member of our project: “It’s gud.”

With the risk of sounding like an actress who have just won an Academy Award for best actress, I want to personally thank every team members who are involved – especially because the majority of the logistics, ice drilling, and on-site gas measurements are there to support the big melter operation which is my own Ph.D project.  First off I want to thank our awesome camp manager Kathy Schroeder (pronounced: Schra-der) for her impeccable work in supporting our camp logistics, arranging helicopter flights, making the depot inventory list for next season and providing us with some of the best field meals in Antarctica that would make Scott roll in his icy grave underneath the Ross Ice Shelf. Also thank you for introducing me to a whole new dimension of greatness in cinema art that is Bollywood movies. Then I want to thank Mike Jayred and his two drill assistants Jake Ward and Peter Sperlich for their tireless work day in and day out drilling with the BID and doing repetitive and tedious work drill run after drill run out in the wind – I calculated that for the reccee and main melter work combined they must’ve done more than 600 drill runs total. I also want to thank the OSU folks, Ed, Andy, Thomas, and Rachel – especially Andy who stayed for a full season for setting up the field GC system, helping with the reccee work for the big ice melter and measuring our Essex tanks. Then I want to thank Isaac Vimont for coming down and helping me with the melter, thanks for lifting all those heavy BID cores, powering through those damp and cold Tyvek suits and rubber gloves in the morning, and Scott-ing up through potential carpal tunnel when spraying the melter. Thank you for putting up your own Ph.D work on hold and coming down here to help me in the field. I also want to thank you Sarah and Jeff for helping with the melter reccee and their knowledge of the stratigraphy. Special thanks for Sarah and Andy for putting up with my insane troll logic arguments throughout the entire season. Finally last but not least I want to thank Vas – my advisor for everything – almost literally everything. If I mention all the stuff from Vas that I’m thankful with it’ll take an entire blog post or maybe two so I’ll just save those to pad out the acknowledgement section in my Ph.D thesis (if it ever happened).

Anyway it’s been a great season and it’s my honor to work with this team. These people are really awesome.

– Michael

Camp pull out diaries: Icestock and Two Smoking Drill Barrels

Hi all, again sorry for the late update. I wrote the majority post in MCM, and the reason for the late update is that I was procrastinating until the last night in MCM (more like last couple hours before the off-ice flight) to upload the post and for some reason (probably a combination of dying hard drive on my laptop, wonky internet in MCM, and maybe even wordpress server being finnicky) I couldn’t upload the pictures to wordpress. I guess that’s what I got from procrastinating. Then my luggage got stuck in LAX on the way back and my camera was in the check in luggage so I couldn’t upload the post. So initially this post was supposed to be a quick status updates and bunch of picture galleries. However because it’s late, it’s not a status update anymore and more like a journal for our pull out both from the field and McMurdo.

Chrismas dinner in Taylor Glacier.

Christmas dinner in Taylor Glacier.

Basically we had a great and chill Christmas in the field; Kathy cooked a great Christmas meal of cooked game hens, mashed potatoes, stuffings, and some carrot dish thing – it’s all fancy and we sang Christmas song together and exchanged white elephant gifts. I got a box of Cheez-it for my white elephant gift and it was great until Peter spilled the water jug all over my Cheez it two days later.

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Sarah and Kathy (and Peter) watching a dramatic Christmas movie

 

Work on the glacier went really smoothly after Christmas, weather really died down and there were no major hiccups. On the melter side we finished our blank extractions, and the OSU and SIO folks managed to finally get their hand on the BID drill and drill on MIS5/4 area and down at the 130,000 years old Eemian site before New Year. Since there were no helicopter flights on the 2nd and 3rd of January – we decided to not have any day off after Christmas and try to push so that we can get some folks out on the 1st.

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McMurdo station Icestock music festival stage

 

Isaac, Andy and I managed to get out on the 1st January. Pack up was fine and everything went smoothly. Since none of the workstation in McMurdo were open on the 2nd or the 3rd all three of us practically have 3 days off from work – more than enough to switch back from our night shift schedule to MCM schedule. On January 2nd McMurdo was having its Icestock music festival. The main stage setup was really charming – it was half a Rac tent on a moveable gigantic platform truck. Everyone in town were having a good time.

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Chili contest during Icestock

Jeff, Sarah, Jayred and Peter joined us in McMurdo on the 5th. Helo Ops were really overwhelmed by the amount of slingloads we had, so I basically spent two days being on call and unpacking the slings on the helopad. In McMurdo we also had to crawl back into the melter to take pictures of the yellowish mystery matter that froze on the bottom of the melter and send the pictures to Vas. Initally Vas decided to COMAIR the melter back to Rochester for testing to make sure that the yellow residue didn’t affect anything – so there were some emergency scramble and meeting with NSF rep about it. However, we finally decided that the melter will just go on vessel but with priority unloading.

Kathy joined us on the 8th and she did an amazing job with cataloging the depot inventory lists and organizing the entire pull out. By then we were practically finished with cargo, I helped Jayred to dry the BID drill barrels indoor. Jeff, Andy, Isaac and Peter left the ice on the 10th. The rest of us spent almost a full day on the 10th to return our BFC (Berg Field Center) gears and wash all of our kitchen utensils from the BFC. After the BFC gear returns we practically had nothing else to do, so we spent the rest of our time in McMurdo just chilling, watching Kathy’s Bollywood movies, and hanging out in the galley.

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Isaac crawling into the melter to take pictures and scrape off the yellow residue on the bottom of the melter

The rest of the team – Kathy, Jayred, Sarah and I left the ice on the 12th. It was a pretty uneventful return to civilization. Kathy and Jayred stayed in Sudima hotel near the airport while Sarah and I stayed at the Pavillions hotel near the botanical garden. I still don’t understand why people who aren’t leaving on the next available flight back to the States stayed at the airport hotel – there were nothing to eat besides the overpriced room service and airport food. Anyway I stayed for one extra night in Christchurch, while Sarah, Jayred and Kathy all moved to YMCA hostel near downtown because they’re traveling in New Zealand (or in Jayred’s case Tasmania) afterwards. We all had a nice dinner at Pegasus Arm’s restaurant near the botanical garden and I bid farewell to the three of them afterwards.

In all, it was a really smooth pull out. Due to the circumstances, we had a lot of time in McMurdo (except Kathy) and it was really nice to have a non hectic pull out schedule. Compared to last season, it was also really nice that at least the four of us got an extra day in Christchurch just to hang out and re-adapted ourselves back to the civilized world. It’s been a wonderful season and I’ll miss everyone once I got back to Rochester. Thank you all!

– Michael

RochesterIceLab on the radio

Hello everyone.  Last week, Vas and I were invited to speak on the monthly science roundtable show on the local NPR affiliate: WXXI.  Evan Dawson invited us on his show to speak about a recent publication based on N2O isotopes which Vas was a contributing author on, as well as the goings on with our lab and the science we are pursuing.  A recording of the show is available for listening here.

Cheers,
Ben

Greetings from the land of raging tempest

Kite aerial photography of Taylor Glacier.

Kite aerial photography of Taylor Glacier. Even during a “calm” day, the wind here is strong enough to lift a kite with a camera attached to it.

Hi everyone,

Just a quick update from Taylor Glacier field camp. This season the weather here has been excellent so far (unlike our previous season where sustained 30-40 knot winds were a daily routine). Going along with the beautiful weather that we are enjoying, everything else science-wise also went pretty smoothly. The Blue Ice Drill (BID) seems to be working smoothly with neither mechanical nor electrical problem at all. The big ice melter system is behaving well after the initial slow start and seems to be producing reasonable CH4 concentration on all of its samples so far. The OSU field GC (gas chromatograph) system is enjoying one of its highest precision in the field in terms of measurement reproducibility. Finally, even the usually finicky shallow PICO hand auger drill with sidewinder attachment (we usually just call this the sidewinder drill) seems to be picking cores consistently even on a really warm day as long as we let the drill head cool down in a hole between drill runs. As a result of this amazing streak of luck, all of us are filling our science goals quickly and …

JUST KIDDING !

On December 17th we got our first real bad weather of the season. The wind was blowing at around 30 knots with gusts up to 40 knots. In addition to the high winds, we also got a lot of blowing snow probably directly from the plateau, which resulted in almost everything in our camp getting snowdrifted.

Sarah Shackleton trenching

Our team member Sarah Shackleton trenching a 3 ft deep, soon to be 15 m long trench, alone in the middle of blowing snow and 30 knots wind. The Shackleton clan throughout the history of this continent has shown peerless willpower and determination, and our Shackleton is no different.

 

On that morning the BID has its first hiccup of the season. The drill motor won’t spin after the first drill run of the day, although it did still make a squeaky noise. Jayred thought that the motor on the drill got jammed by something (probably from blowing snow?) and tried to replace the drill motor with the spare unit, but the spare one also wouldn’t fire up (and no squeaky noise). Jayred with the help of Isaac and Peter were forced to do field surgery on both BID drill motors.

Taking apart the BID drill motor

Jayred and Peter taking apart the BID drill motor in the Rac tent. Dire times!

As a result of the BID mechanical problem, the big ice melter also lost a work day because we had already drained the melter water from the previous day before realizing that the BID wasn’t going to produce any core that day. Luckily after several hours of tinkering with the drill, Jayred, Peter and Isaac managed to figure out what went wrong with the BID. It wasn’t the drill motors at all, and the problem was also not weather related like we all thought initially. Apparently one of the electrical solder connections was loose, so it wasn’t delivering enough amps to the motor. The main drill motor actually has a looser gearbox than the spare drill motor and that’s why the main motor was “squeaking” while the spare just wouldn’t turn at all. The main drill motor and the spare one were reacting differently to the same electrical problem. By the time we figured out the problem with the electrical connection, the drill motor had been fully taken apart and it took Jayred and Peter a good amount of the latter half of the day to re-assemble it. However, all is not lost because the BID is back up and running and has been producing really fine cores in the last two days.

Currently, we are planning to work this upcoming Sunday to make up for the lost work day so that the BID drilling for the MIS 5-4 transition still could happen because the GC data from the MIS 5/4 sidewinder recce looked really promising. Unfortunately the high wind here still won’t let up, although we did have some short windless lulls here and there in the last three days or so. The good ol’ windy 2013-14 Taylor Glacier seemed to be back, but we’ll make do and so far all is well.

If nothing else, Taylor Glacier clear.

-Michael

December 4, 2014

We have now been on the glacier for over 2 weeks, and the work is going in full swing. Weather has been kind (knock on wood), with much less wind so far than last season.

Once again, we are lucky to have a fantastic team – the most important single factor that determines the success or failure of a season. Returning Taylor Glacier veterans include Ed Brook (OSU faculty and co-PI on the project), Thomas Bauska (OSU post-doc), Mike Jayred (IDDO driller), Michael Dyonisius (UR PhD student) and myself. New to the glacier are Kathy Schroeder (our camp manager), Andy Menking (OSU PhD student), Rachael Rhodes (OSU postdoc), Sarah Shackleton (SIO PhD student) and Jake Ward (recent UR graduate). Sarah and Jake are completely new to polar fieldwork, and both have adjusted extremely well to life on the glacier with all its particulars, such as sleeping in the cold and 24-hr daylight.

 

Jayred (in back) brings the drill sonde up to the surface as Jake prepares to help.

Jayred (in back) brings the drill sonde up to the surface as Jake prepares to help.

Michael (wearing Tyvek suit) crawls inside the large ice melter to install the bubbler manifold.

Michael (wearing Tyvek suit) crawls inside the large ice melter to install the bubbler manifold.

Vas trims the ends of large ice cores prior to loading in the ice melter.

Vas trims the ends of large ice cores prior to loading in the ice melter.

Overall, progress has been good. We were off to a good start with the BID drill, our smaller ice drill system (Sidewinder), as well as making methane measurements on small ice samples for reconnaissance purposes with the gas chromatograph system (GC). The large ice melter system we use to collect samples for carbon-14 analyses of ancient methane was slower to get going because of a persistent leak. The large ice melter has to be extremely leak tight and hold a good vacuum in order to avoid contaminating our ancient air samples with modern air that contains a higher level of carbon-14 and methane. After extensive testing, the leak was finally traced to a poor seal on our viewport, and both the o-ring and the viewport glass were replaced, which solved the problem. Work on the leaks and the test run pushed us into some very long hours, which included I think a new record for this system – a 20-hr work day! We have by now collected our first full sample, extracting approximately 12,500 year old air from about 1100 kg of ice and also collected a full procedural test sample, which helps us to determine the effects of any non-sample (“extraneous”) carbon that is added during the many stages of sample processing and preparation.

Ed, Thomas and Rachael removing a heating element from the spare GC.

Ed, Thomas and Rachael removing a heating element from the spare GC.

Ed and Thomas cutting the ice sticks for the continuous melter system on a bandsaw.

Ed and Thomas cutting the ice sticks for the continuous melter system on a bandsaw.

Stick of ice being melted on a clean gold-plated warm plate.

Stick of ice being melted on a clean gold-plated warm plate.

Ed and Rachael have worked stoically to get the continuous methane measurement system going. This is a new system for us at Taylor Glacier, and is designed to allow for methane measurements on a stick cut from the ice core. The stick is melted slowly on a warm plate, and part of the meltwater (and with it the ancient air) is siphoned off through a small orifice in the middle of the warm plate. The gases are then separated from the water and the methane concentration is analyzed using a laser spectrometer. When this system works well, it can produce a very high resolution methane record extremely fast, and would be a very powerful tool for our methane-based studies of the ice layer stratigraphy and identification of ice that we want to sample for carbon-14 analyses. Unfortunately, some of the heating elements used in the warm plate were damaged during the initial system setup. Ed and Rachael have been extremely resourceful in trying to solve this problem and were able to adapt the warm plate to take a different-size heating element from the spare GC system. The system is now working well and producing excellent-quality continuous data for methane concentration.

Andy with the methane GC system

Andy with the methane GC system

The methane GC system has been working very well from the start and Andy has produced excellent data on ice samples that Thomas and Sarah recovered with the Sidewinder system. So far these measurements have allowed us to very clearly identify the ≈18,000 year old ice section that contains the very start of the atmospheric methane increase from the low concentrations of the Last Glacial Maximum. The GC data have also identified the large rapid atmospheric methane oscillation (decline and subsequent increase) that happened at around 8,200 years ago, when a large burst of water from the melting North American ice sheet slowed down the warm water circulation in the North Atlantic and caused widespread cooling. Both of these time intervals contain important clues to how the natural atmospheric methane cycle works and are targets for our large-volume carbon-14 sampling.

Kathy has been working tirelessly on setting up and maintaining our camp, and keeping us all fueled with her amazing cooking. Thanksgiving dinner (which we had last Sunday) was outstanding!

-Vas

Taylor Glacier Put-In

It’s been over ten days since our much anticipated put-in to Taylor Glacier, and we are only now beginning to settle in to a regular daily routine here at camp. As things are going well now and it’s been some time since our last blog entry, I thought I’d write a bit about put-in and all the work, collaboration and (best of all) helicopter flights that took place to make it happen.

Taylor Glacier camp, looking down-glacier, on the first night. The first two days on the glacier were cold and cloudy.

Taylor Glacier camp, looking down-glacier, on the first night. The first two days on the glacier were cold and cloudy.

Put-in of the I-159 team occurred over a two day period, with helicopters dropping off our priority cargo at the campsite up to five days in advance. The first day people were dropped at the camp was Monday, November 17th. That morning, helicopters began shuttling both people and cargo to Taylor Glacier at 9am. The first group of people to go in was a team of five carpenters, or “carps” as they are commonly referred to here. They were tasked with the difficult job of building our fixed structures for the kitchen and dining tent, the lab “Rac Tent” and the enclosure for the large melter, all of which would take until Thursday to complete. I imagine that there are few other carpenters who commute to work on helicopters and level floors on blue ice.

Sorting cargo on Taylor Glacier

Sorting cargo on Taylor Glacier

Next to fly in were Kathy and Michael, along with Nicky and Kerry from the BFC. They arrived at 2:30pm and spent the afternoon hauling and sorting cargo, getting the Polar Haven operational and setting up camp. The last people to arrive on Monday were Andy, Jayred and Jake, departing McMurdo on a 7:45pm flight and arriving to Taylor Glacier at 8:30pm. Stepping off the helicopter, the first thing that struck me (aside from the realization that the stabil-icers I was wearing had already fallen off) was the incredible cliff face towering into the clouds above the camp. The rock in the hill was layered, with a dark dolorite intrusion contrasting sharply with two light-colored granite layers above and below. There wasn’t much time to admire the scenery however… there was much to do. Activities on the glacier that first evening included setting up mountain tents and drilling lots of “V-Threads” to anchor down tents into the ice. All the while, helicopters announced their approach with a reverberation booming up the valley, and we’d all pause our work to help unload cargo from the helicopters.

A 212 Helicopter dropping off a sling load at camp

A 212 Helicopter dropping off a sling load at camp

The next morning the work continued. After breakfast the endurance tent was raised and the floor to the Rac Tent began to be constructed. Around midday, Vas, Ed, Rachel, Sarah and Thomas arrived on a 212 helicopter and the Taylor Glacier population grew to a bustling 17 people. More tents were constructed and more cargo was delivered, hauled, sorted and tied down. Looking up the glacier, the clouds still remained low in the sky and those of us who were here for the first time could only guess at the true magnificence this place; we caught occasional glimpses of distant snow-swept peaks and immense glaciers pouring down through endless valleys. It would be another day before the wind and clouds lifted and the sky cleared.

Mountain tents setup on the first day of put-in

Mountain tents setup on the first day of put-in

In the following days the Rac Tent was completed and the lab began to be setup and equipment carried in. The two drilling teams – Thomas and Sarah on the Sidewinder and Jayred and Jake on the Blue Ice Drill – were able to begin pulling up ice cores near camp, and semblance of what our days might begin to look like took shape. More helicopters arrived, carrying everything from fuel and generators to lab equipment and sleds. Unloading gear from helicopters as their rotors and engines roared above our heads studded the calmness of working on the beautiful glacier with bursts of excitement and adrenaline.

The Blue Ice Drill (BID) setup outside the Rac Tent on a clear day

The Blue Ice Drill (BID) setup outside the Rac Tent on a clear day

Things have reached equilibrium at camp now and everyone has settled into their daily routines, whether it is drilling ice, analyzing samples or managing camp. Three times a day we all get together and pack into the Polar Haven to escape the wind and cold, warm up and eat a hearty meal. The peculiarities of living here have become normal – walking on sun-cupped ice, waking up extra early to allow ample time to get dressed and put on boots without standing up, dealing with everything left in a tent freezing solid, etc. It is an amazing place and these little things all add to the allure and unusualness of living and working in an Antarctic field camp.

Mike Jayred turning on a generator for BID drilling

Mike Jayred turning on a generator for BID drilling

Ed and Rachel successfully cutting large BID cores on their band saw

Ed and Rachel successfully cutting large BID cores on their band saw

Jake